The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact was concluded outside the League of Nations and remains in force.  One month after its conclusion, a similar agreement, the General Law for the Settlement of International Disputes, was reached in Geneva, requiring its signatory parties to set up conciliation commissions in each disputed case.  The essential provisions of the Covenant, which renounce the use of war and encourage the peaceful settlement of disputes and the use of collective force to prevent aggression, have been incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties. Although civil wars have continued, wars between established states have been rare since 1945, with few exceptions in the Middle East.  With the influence and support of Shotwell and Butler, French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand proposed a peace pact as a bilateral agreement between the United States and France to ban war between them. France, particularly hard hit by the First World War, was confronted with the continuing precariousness of its German neighbour and sought alliances to support its defence. Briand published an open letter in April 1927 containing the proposal. Although the proposal had the enthusiastic support of some members of the American pacifist movement, U.S. President Calvin Coolidge and Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg were less eager than Briand to reach a bilateral agreement. They feared that the agreement against the war would be interpreted as a bilateral alliance and would force the United States to intervene if France was ever threatened. To avoid this, they proposed that the two nations take the lead in inviting all nations to join them and ban war. If the parties cannot or do not want to invoke arbitration, mediation contracts have their greatest value in adapting the international irritations that cause public opinion to explode and threaten world peace.
One of our first conciliation agreements was the 1911 Knox Treaty. This contract, which was also an arbitration contract, was never invoked by the Speaker because the Senate had certain reservations during deliberation and approval. However, these reservations do not affect the conciliation provisions of the Treaty and should not be discussed in this context. Our next conciliation contracts were Bryan`s contracts, which I have already referred to. The first was signed in 1913, and there are 18 in force. In 1923, we became parties to two other mediation agreements, the signing in Washington on February 7, 1923 between the United States and the 5 Central American Republics and the signing in Santiago on May 3, 1923 between the United States and 15 Latin American countries. Both treaties were ratified by the U.S. Senate. They are similar to Bryan`s contracts, the main difference being the way commissions of inquiry are formed. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was a no-war agreement, signed on August 27, 1928.